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Today Luxembourg is a small Grand Duchy in Western Europe, among France, Germany and Belgium.
The country, has been occupied by Gauls and Germans and then conquered by Ceasar, becoming a part of "Belgica Prima Regio". Then Luxembourg has been part of The Frank Reign of Austrasia and of the Carlovingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun (843) made of it an Earl-dom in the Kingdom of Lotharingia.
In 950 Sigefroid, son of Vigeric, Earl of Ardennes, got as fief Echternach, the Luxembourg main town, and the Castle of Lutzelburg, the old name of the Grand Duchy.
The Earldom of Luxembourg has been hold by Konrad I, founder of the Luxembourg family.
Then the power passed to the Namur and to the Limbourg families.
In 1309 The Earl of Luxembourg became Emperor as Henry VII; he gave the Earldom to his son John I, King of Bohemia, and Charles IV, the John's son, upgraded the Earldom to a Duchy, giving the title to his brother Wenzel I. The Duchy passed then to his grandchild, Wenzel II.
After Wenzel II, the Duchy has been governed by the "Engagistes", in French the word means a governor charged by the legitim sovereign and this commission often depended on debts contracted by the sovereign with the Engagiste. After the period of the Engagistes the power came back to the sovereigns with Sigmund, the brother of Wenzel II who gave the title to Elisabeth von Görlitz, but she sold the Country and the seller, Philip the Good of Burgundy, occupied the Duchy.
The Luxembourg stayed under the family of Burgundy till 1506.
From the family of Burgundy the Duchy passed then to Charles of Ghent, and became, in 1516 King of Spain and in 1520 Emperor as Charles V. During the war between Francis I, King of France and Charles V, the Luxembourg was ravaged.
So Luxembourg and the other Spanish dominions, are involved in the war. The most important of them is the Thirty Years War. The Duchy of Luxembourg falls under the French power, but after the War of the Absburgic League it goes back to Spain.
After the Spanish Succession War the Duchy, with the other Spanish possessions of the Netherlands, passes under the Austrian rule, till 1795, when the Revolutionary French Army occupied the town after a long siege.
The Congress of Wien assigned the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to William I, Prince of Orange, but as a part of the German Confederation.
In 1890 William III dies, and the family of Orange-Nassau ends with him. The Grand Duchy becomes independent from the Netherlands, with Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.
During the First WW, Luxembourg was occupied by Germany. At the Peace Conference of Versailles, Belgium requested in vain to annex the Grand Duchy, occupied by USA troops.
The Grand Duchess Mary Adelaide abdicates and her sister Charlotte succeeded to the throne.
Luxembourg maintained its independence, but was established an economic union with Belgium.
In 1939 The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg celebrated the first millennium of Independence.
In this year German Troops occupied once more the Country, till September 1944, when the Fifth US Army Division liberated it from Nazi occupation. During the Runstedt Push, Luxembourg was re-occupied by German troops, but in the January 1945 the Patton's III rd Army finally free it.
In 1948 The Grand Duchy became a part of Benelux, and in 1949 of the NATO.

We can establish a parallelism between Luxembourg and Italian Little States, during the Middle Age and at the beginning of the Modern Eve. They were often invaded by stronger Countries and underwent the oppression of Spain, France and Austria, and got their independence through the suffering of the war.
The coinage of Luxembourg openly shows this situation; here we can find typologies and models strictly referred to those of the dominant Countries.
This work wants to show how Coinage can explain the History of a Country, showing how and when it was independent and when, on the contrary, he was subjected.

Sometimes coins could explain it better than historiography, which is always written by the winners...